Oscilloscopes are one of the key test instruments used for investigating electronic circuitry. Oscilloscopes, or scopes provide insight into the waveforms generated within a circuit - probing different points on the circuit enables the different waveforms to be seen.
Manufacturer of a large range of oscilloscopes, Rohde & Schwarz has a considerable degree of expertise and the links to whitepapers, webinars, videos and web pages provide some expert technical insight into oscilloscope technology, how to use oscilloscopes and how to gain the bet from them. Everything from Whitepaper on the basics of using an oscilloscope, right up to advanced topics for using high end scopes.
This very informative educational note covers the theory and practice oscilloscopes based on concrete measurement examples that address authentic everyday tasks.
The theoretical portion of this paper begins with an explanation of the basic operating concepts for oscilloscopes, followed by a discussion of the most important parameters to be considered when setting up and performing the exercise measurements.
The practical portion of the educational note contains detailed measurement tasks that can be performed by small groups in the university lab. These exercises are intended to demonstrate and reinforce the knowledge gained in the theoretical portion. The exercises build upon one another and demonstrate measurement tasks that are frequently encountered by engineers in daily work.Read more
Debugging DDR3 memory circuits can be very difficult. Data is passed at very fast rates. Oscilloscopes are often needed but few manage to achieve the required speeds. Find out how to debug DDR3 circuits.Read more
Fast digital interfaces like the USB 3 interface transfer data at phenomenally high rates. Many oscilloscopes cannot cope with this, and those that can find that the cables introduce attenuation, and delays. A concept called de-embedding enables these inaccuracies to be removed. Find out how this can be achieved int his useful video.Read more
Waveform analysis is often a key component of any oscilloscope measurement. Whilst today's scopes have very high levels of processing, it is often necessary to download the waveform data onto a computer which will be able to provide all the applications and processing power required for a greater level of post processing. To achieve this it is necessary to download the waveform data as swiftly as possible. Find out how this can be done.Read more
When developing applications for Internet of Things / M2M applications it is essential to ensure that both RF and digital aspects operate properly together. The only way this can often be achieved is by using a multi-domain measuring instrument. Find out how this can be done.Read more
Measuring noise and ripple on power rails with small voltages and increasingly tighter tolerances is a challenge for oscilloscopes. Using a standard 500 MHz passive probe with a 10:1 attenuation results in additional measurement noise, causing overstated peak-to-peak voltage measurements and masking signal details. Additionally a high oscilloscope resolution is needed to convert the small detail in the presence of larger voltages. Find out how this can be done.Read more
High-speed serial interfaces often transmit data with differential signalling. For probing on the signal trace, differential probes are needed. Besides the differential inputs, these probes often provide an additional connection for ground – especially the higher bandwidth models. The ground connection on the R&S®RT‑ZMxx modular multimode probes can be used to improve measurements on high-speed differential interfaces. Find out more about differential measurements & probes . .Read more
When a circuit is works incorrectly, there is often little time to correct the problem; design and development results must be delivered quickly. Correction can be difficult with conventional edge triggers because the error state cannot be precisely selected. Solutions tailored to the specific problem are required in this situation. This application note looks at the ways in which specialised triggering methods can be used to identify problems and issues quicklyRead more
This interesting free white-paper looks at sporadic errors in measurements. Sporadic errors cost valuable time during the development of new products. Debugging protocol-based buses is especially difficult and time-consuming because the communications pauses between the individual data packets can be very long. For example, a sensor will send a value over an I2C bus only once per minute. The oscilloscope memory typically limits the record length for analyzing errors and their history to a few milliseconds.Read more
Find faults in the field can be more difficult than in the laboratory because there may not be sufficient test equipment available. Having the right portable equipment can vastly improve the ability to fault find away from base. However this equipment needs to be small, battery powered, effective and robust. Read more . . . .Read more
Digital oscilloscopes are able to provide new levels of fault-finding functionality. They are able to provide much higher levels of insight into the operation of digital circuits which can prove invaluable in many instances. One of the key advantages of USB power delivery (USB PD) supported by USB Type-C™ connectors is the capability to transmit power up to 100 W. Using low speed signalling, the devices negotiate a USB PD profile. Suppliers of USB Type-C components and device vendors utilising the USB PD standard need to ensure interoperability in terms of protocol handshake and signal integrity. Raed more . . .Read more
RF pulse measurements, to characterize the signal in the frequency domain, are traditionally carried out on an RF spectrum analyzer. For time related pulse parameters, oscilloscopes are widely used. However, the measurement capabilities of state of the art test and measurement equipment has evolved over time and crosses domains. With a combination of a digital oscilloscope and dedicated pulse analysis software, pulse signals can be analyzed in both domains, frequency and time.Read more