Amplitude Modulation, AM Tutorial Includes:
Amplitude modulation, AM AM basic theory & formulas AM bandwidth & sidebands Modulation index & depth AM efficiency AM demodulation / detection Diode detector Synchronous detector AM modulators Single sideband, SSB SSB demodulation
Modulation formats: Modulation types & techniques Frequency modulation Phase modulation Quadrature amplitude modulation
Synchronous AM demodulation provides some significant improvements over the simple diode detector.
The improvement in performance of synchronous detectors requires the use of additional components and sophistication and in turn this increases the cost. As a result synchronous detectors are generally only used in high performance receivers where cost is less of an issue.
Today, with the widespread use of integrated circuits, it is easy to incorporate the components for a synchronous detector in an IC at little additional cost. However earlier low cost AM broadcast radios tended to be made from discrete components where the additional circuitry for a synchronous detector would have added significant cost and therefore they were rarely used.
Advantages of synchronous AM detection
At the expense of additional components and cost, the synchronous AM demodulator provides a number of advantages in terms of performance.
- Reduced effects of selective fading: For HF communications, and in particular broadcasting, a particular annoyance is the fading that occurs. In some circumstances this can affect different sections of the bandwidth of an AM signal differently. It is possible for the level of the carrier to fade by ten to fifteen dB relative to the sidebands, and this makes envelope detection difficult and it gives rise to significant levels of distortion. As synchronous demodulation techniques generate their own carrier, the effects of selective fading are considerably reduced making for a much better listening experience.
- Reduce levels of distortion: The diode AM demodulator provides very high levels of distortion. Synchronous AM demodulation offers much lower levels of distortion and as a result provides a much better rendering of the original modulation. Distortion arises from many factors including the turn on voltage required for the diode in an envelope detector, selective fading as mentioned above and poor tuning.
- Signal level: When diode detectors are used it is necessary to have a sufficient level of signal present to overcome the diode forward bias. For synchronous detectors this is not an issue because the mixer used within the detector can operate down to very low levels.
Synchronous detection basics
The basic concept behind the synchronous detector or synchronous demodulator is that the incoming signal is converted to what is often termed base band. This is achieved by mixing the incoming AM signal with a local oscillator that is on exactly the same frequency as the carrier.
This mixing process converts the carrier to a 0Hz signal and the sidebands to their base band frequency band, i.e. it reconstitutes the audio.
There are several methods of generating the local oscillator signal, and it is these that create the different types of AM synchronous demodulator.
Types of synchronous detectorAlthough all synchronous detectors or synchronous demodulators use the same basic concept of using a local oscillator on the same frequency as the incoming carrier, and using this mix with the incoming signal to extract the audio, there are several methods of achieving this.
- Filter method: This method of providing synchronous detection is probably the most obvious. It entails using a narrow band filter to extract the carrier and then using this to mix with the overall signal.
This method requires the receiver t be tuned to exactly the required frequency to enable the carrier to pass through the narrow band filter. Fortunately receiver stability is not an issue these days and once tuned, it should remain on the required frequency, but tuning is critical for this method and it is not particularly successful.
- Phase locked loop: Phase locked loops are particularly useful in many RF applications. This form of synchronous detector uses a phase locked loop with a narrow loop filter to lock on to the carrier and replicate a signal on exactly the same frequency. This signal is then used as the local oscillator signal to mix with the incoming AM signal to extract the audio.
This form of synchronous detector works well and the approach has been used in many radio receivers.
- Limiting amplifier: Another method of creating a synchronous detector is to use a limiting amplifier to generate the carrier. Some of the signal is taken from the IF amplifier chain of the receiver and applied to a circuit with a very high gain. The amplifier will limit and when an AM signal is present this will remove any amplitude variation, i.e. the modulation, and leave only the carrier.
This is a very elegant method of creating a synchronous detector and one that is not only simple but works effectively, not requiring complex filters of even a phase locked loop.
The circuit arrangement for the limiting amplifier form of synchronous detector comprises the normal IF amplifier chain. The output from the IF amplifier is applied to a mixer. The output from the IF amplifier is also applied to a limiting amplifier, and the output from this is applied to the local oscillator input of the mixer. The output is then the recovered audio that can be amplifier by an audio amplifier in the normal way.
Whatever method of synchronous detection is used, it provides some significant advantages over a diode envelope detector in terms of reduced distortion, increased immunity to selective fading, and low signal performance.
More Essential Radio Topics:
Radio Signals Modulation types & techniques Amplitude modulation Frequency modulation RF mixing Phase locked loops Frequency synthesizers Passive intermodulation RF attenuators RF filters Radio receiver types Superhet radio Radio receiver selectivity Radio receiver sensitivity Receiver strong signal handling
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