Op-amp Tutorial Includes:
Introduction Circuits summary Inverting amplifier Summing amplifier Non-inverting amplifier Variable gain amplifier High pass active filter Low pass active filter Bandpass filter Notch filter Comparator Schmitt trigger Multivibrator Bistable Integrator Differentiator Wien bridge oscillator Phase shift oscillator
One of the main uses for operational amplifier ICs is within audio amplifiers but they find applications in a whole variety of other areas as well.
When used within circuits, op-amps utilise feedback around the basic chip to control the level of gain and produce the required form of signal at the output.
There are many op amp circuits that cover most of the main analogue functions that are needed. As a result of this, operational amplifiers have become the workhorse of the analogue electronics designer.
To achieve this there are very many forms of operational amplifier based circuits. A selection of op-amp circuits is given below:
- Op-amp inverting amplifier : The op-amp inverting amplifier is possibly the most widely used op amp circuit configuration. Not only does it provide gain, but it can also be used as a virtual earth amplifier. . . . . Read more about op-amp inverting amplifier.
- Op-amp non-inverting amplifier : The non-inverting amplifier circuit provides gain and also a very high input impedance. Accordingly it is widely used in many amplifier input stages. . . . . Read more about op-amp non-inverting amplifier.
- Op amp summing amplifier: Based around the inverting amplifier circuit with its virtual earth summing point, this circuit is ideal for summing audio inputs. It is widely used in audio mixer and many other applications where voltages need to be summed. . . . . Read more about op-amp summing amplifier.
- Op-amp comparator: The comparator circuit is often used to provide a high or low signal dependent upon the relative states of the two inputs. Special comparator chips are normally used for this application, but they follow the same basic concepts as operational amplifiers. . . . . Read more about op-amp comparator.
- Op-amp high pass filter: Op amps are able to provie, easy to design, one, two and three pole filters using a single op amp. . . . . Read more about high pass filter.
- Op-amp low pass filter: In the same way that op-amps are able to form the basis of an active high pass filter, they can also be used for low pass filters. . . . . Read more about low pass filter.
- Op-amp bandpass filter: Although high and low pass fiters are very useful, bandpass filters, allowing a band of frequencies through are also needed and can be easily implemented using op amps . . . . Read more about bandpass filters.
- Op-amp notch filter: Notch filters are used where a single frequency or narrow band of frequencies needs to be removed. These filters can be realised using one of more op amps. . . . . Read more about op amp notch filter.
- Op-amp Schmitt trigger: The Schmitt trigger has different switching levels dependent upon whether the circuit is switching from high to low or vice versa. This gives the circuit noise immunity to the level of the difference between the two switching levels. . . . . Read more about op-amp Schmitt trigger.
- Op-amp multivibrator: Multivibrators are used in a variety of different applications. Op-amp circuits often provide an effective solution. . . . . Read more about op-amp multivibrator.
- Op-amp bistable: Op amps can be used as a bistable in some applications. Although not best suited to the application, they still work well. . . . . Read more about bistable.
- Op-amp analogue integrator: Op amps are ideal for use as integrators. The high input impedance and gain lends itself to this application, although for long integration times very high input impedance chips may be required. . . . . Read more about analogue integrator.
- Op-amp analogue differentiator: The op amp differnetitator is another circuit used in analogue computing and finds applications in other areas. . . . . Read more about analogue differentiator.
- Op-amp Wien bridge oscillator: The op amp Wien bridge oscillator is able to act as a good signal generator circuit. . . . . Read more about Wien bridge oscillator.
- Op-amp phase shift sine wave oscillator: The phase shift oscillator circuit is able to provide a good sine wave output. . . . . Read more about phase shift sine wave oscillator.
There are also many other op amp circuits that are useful to use. We will be adding more as time goes on, so be sure to check back again.