SIGFOX is a cellular style, long range, low power, low data rate form of wireless communications that has been developed to provide wireless connectivity for devices like remote sensors, actuators and other M2M and IoT devices.
The SIGFOX wireless interface has been developed to enable any communications that take place to consume a minimum amount of power. In this way the remote devices can run on battery power for very extended periods without the need for any battery changes or maintenance.
In addition to this, M2M and IoT communications will communications over extended distances and the SIGFOX system has been designed to enable the transmissions to cover long distances, enabling a limited number of base stations to be used.
Using a cellular style approach, the remote SIGFOX nodes are able to communicate with base stations which have Internet connectivity, thereby enabling remote control and data collection from anywhere with Internet connectivity.
In this way, SIGFOX is able to provide a low data rate connection to anywhere that is covered by a network at very low cost for many M2M and IoT applications.
SIGFOX M2M application areas
The SIGFOX network and technology is aimed at the low cost machine to machine application areas where wide area coverage is required. There are a number of applications that need this form of low cost wireless communications technology. Areas where the SIGFOX network may be used include:
- Home and consumer goods
- Energy related communications - in particular smart metering
- Healthcare - in particular the mHealth applications that are starting to be developed
- Transportation - this can include the automotive management
- Remote monitoring and control
- Retail including point of sale, shelf updating, etc
What is SIGFOX
SIGFOX provides a cellular style network operator that provides a tailor-made solution for low-throughput Internet of Things and M2M applications.
For a host of applications from smart meters to control nodes that need connectivity over long ranges the only option until recently has been to use a cellular connection. This option has several disadvantages because cellular phone systems are focussed on voice and high data rates. They are not suited to low data rate connections as the radio interface is complex and this adds cost and power consumption - too much for most M2M / IoT applications.
The SIGFOX network is aimed at providing connectivity for a variety of applications and users. It is not aimed at one area, but at being for general use by a variety of different types of users. The SIGFOX network performance is characterised by the following:
- Up to 140 messages per object per day
- Payload size for each message is 12 bytes
- Wireless throughput up to 100 bits per second
SIGFOX radio access network
In view of the low data rates used for IoT connections, the SIGFOX network employs Ultra-Narrow Band, UNB technology. This enables very low transmitter power levels to be used while still being able to maintain a robust data connection.
The SIGFOX radio link uses unlicensed ISM radio bands. The exact frequencies can vary according to national regulations, but in Europe the 868MHz band is widely used and in the US it is 915MHz.
The density of the cells in the SIGFOX network is based on an average range of about 30-50km in rural areas and in urban areas where there are usually more obstructions and noise is greater the range may be reduced to between 3 and 10km. Distances can be much higher for outdoor nodes where SIGFOX states line of sight messages could travel over 1000km.
The overall SIGFOX network topology has been designed to provide a scalable, high-capacity network, with very low energy consumption, while maintaining a simple and easy to rollout star-based cell infrastructure.
SIGFOX is one of a number of systems that is being deployed to meet the growing demand for M2M and IoT applications. Each of the different systems has its own characteristics and the size of the market will mean that there is space for several different competing systems.
Wireless & Wired Connectivity Topics:
Mobile Communications basics 2G GSM 2G GPRS 2G GSM EDGE 3G UMTS 3G HSPA 4G LTE 5G LMR / PMR WiFi IEEE 802.15.4 DECT cordless phones NFC- Near Field Communication Ethernet Serial data USB
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